||The default name of
a configuration file that contains server directives
(small commands known by the server) that tell the
server how to behave. A .htaccess file is used to
restrict access (password-protection) to specific files
and/or directories on the Internet or an intranet.
Above the fold
viewable area within a browser window, usually
consisting of 600 pixels wide by 320 pixels high. This
is approximately the size of a single screen that is
visible to browsers without the need for scrolling, and
is the area first seen when your page loads.
published by Microsoft is an easy to use and highly
integrated database creation and maintenance software.
Capable of online databases, the software is supported
with the NT hosting platform.
Code for Information Interchange) -- This is the de
facto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by
computers to represent all the upper and lower-case
Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128
standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by
a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111, plus
||ASP - Active Server
Pages (ASP). ASP files, which provide Web developers
with an easier, faster, and more powerful way to build
Web applications, are regular HTML pages with embedded
scripts. These scripts can be written in any language
and processed by the server when the files URL is
||A high-speed line
or series of connections that forms a major pathway
within a network. The term is relative, as a backbone in
a small network will likely be much smaller than many
non-backbone lines in a large network.
between the highest and lowest frequencies available for
network signals. The term is also used to describe the
rated throughput capacity of a given network medium or
protocol. In short, bandwidth is a loose term used to
describe the throughput capacity (measured in Kilobits
or Megabits per second) of a specific circuit.
||Unit of signaling
speed equal to the number of discrete signal elements
transmitted per second. Baud is synonymous with bits per
second (bps). In common usage the baud rate of a modem
is how many bits it can send or receive per second.
Technically, baud is the number of times per second that
the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200
bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it
moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 = 1200 bits per second).
||A single digit
number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero.
The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is
usually measured in bits-per-second.
-- A measurement of how fast data is moved from one
place to another. A 28.8 modem can move 28,800 bits per
that is used to look at various kinds of Internet
resources. Examples include Microsoft Internet Explorer
and Netscape Navigator.
||A set of Bits that
represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits
in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the
measurement is being made.
Catch-all Email Account
||An email account in
which an email of the form, email@example.com,
will go to you. For example, Support@you.com, Webmaster@you.com,
and firstname.lastname@example.org, will all be sent to the
account (some hosts allow you to have these sent to
different accounts) set up for you.
||An issuer of
Security Certificates used in SSL connections.
Interface) -- A set of rules that describe how a Web
Server communicates with another piece of software on
the same machine, and how the other piece of software
(the `CGI program`) talks to the web server. Any piece
of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and
output according to the CGI standard. Usually a CGI
program is a small program that takes data from a web
server and does something with it, like putting the
content of a form into an e-mail message, or turning the
data into a database query.
||The most common
name of a directory on a web server in which CGI
programs are stored. The `bin` part of `cgi-bin` is a
shorthand version of `binary`, because once upon a time,
most programs were referred to as `binaries`. In real
life, most programs found in cgi-bin directories are
text files -- scripts that are executed by binaries
located elsewhere on the server. While most programs
using CGI are stored in this directory, it is not a
requirement for using CGI.
||A software program
that is used to contact and obtain data from a server
software program on another computer, often across a
great distance. Each client program is designed to work
with one or more specific kinds of server programs, and
each server requires a specific kind of client. A web
browser and an FTP program are specific kinds of
language for advanced web development and database
interfacing. Cold Fusion supports Microsoft Access,
dBASE, FoxPro, and Paradox databases.
||In the case of many
registries, contact information for technical, billing
and administrative purposes are maintained in their
database. It is important to keep your contact records
updated to ensure that billing and renewal can proceed
||The most common
meaning of `Cookie` on the Internet refers to a piece of
information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that
the Browser software is expected to save and to send
back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional
requests from the Server. Depending on the type of
Cookie used, and the Browser settings, the Browser may
accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie
for either a short time or a long time. Cookies might
contain information such as login or registration
information, online `shopping cart` information, user
preferences, etc. When a Server receives a request from
a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to
use the information stored in the Cookie. For example,
the Server might customize what is sent back to the
user, or keep a log of particular users requests.
Data Transfer / Hits
||You have unlimited
data transfer (or hits) on your virtual server. Any
outward-bound traffic from your web site is considered
data transfer. For example, each time a html file,
image, or other element on your web page is loaded, data
transfer is generated.
Detailed Web Statistics
graphical reports on your website visitor demographics.
Allows you to monitor how much traffic goes to your
||Disk space refers
to the amount of server disk storage your account is
allocated. This space is used to store your html files,
graphics, audio clips, POP mail messages, and all other
files that make up your Web site.
DNS: Domain Naming System
||The DNS is a
distributed, replicated that allows name servers to map
easily remembered domain names to an IP number.
||The unique name
that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always
have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the
left is the most specific, and the part on the right is
the most general. A given machine may have more than one
Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one
machine. Usually, all of the machines on a given Network
will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of
their Domain Names in the examples above. It is also
possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected
to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group
or business can have an Internet e-mail address without
having to establish a real Internet site. In these
cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail
on behalf of the listed Domain Name.
Commerce. Refers to the general exchange of goods and
services via the Internet.
-- Messages sent from one person to another via
computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a
large number of addresses (Mailing List).
E-Mail Auto Responders
||Auto responders may
be used to send automated responses to incoming e-mail
sent to a specific address. An auto responder could be
used to send a standard messages.
||- Having email
automatically sent (forwarded) from one (or more) email
address, to another (possibly more than one) email
address that you specify. If a person has `unlimited
email forwarding`, then an email of the form, email@example.com
will be sent to forwarding address. For example,
Support@you.com, Webmaster@you.com, and Anythingfirstname.lastname@example.org,
will all be sent to the account (some hosts allow you to
have these sent to different accounts) specified to be
changing data so that only the intended recipient can
read it. The recipient of the encrypted data must have
the proper decryption key and program to decipher the
||A server farm is a
group of load-balanced servers IP addresses or server
names. The farm is identified by a virtual IP address or
a virtual server name and may contain many different
physical “member servers”. Depending on the complexity
of your requirements a single farm may contain various
services such as HTTP, FTP, SMTP, streaming audio/video,
etc. all within itself or you may have separate farms
associated with each service you wish to load balance.
Farms may contain farms of farms for various complex
||Free for all.
Scripts that automatically update a links listing (these
are usually submitted to by automated programs).
software tool for locating people on other Internet
sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to
non-personal information, but the most common use is to
see if a person has an account at a particular Internet
site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests.
||A combination of
hardware and software that separates a LAN into two or
more parts for security purposes.
FrontPage is a site creation and management software
tool. One of the most popular website creation software
packages the software, both FrontPage® 98 and FrontPage
®2000 is widely supported by the hosting community.
Protocol) -- A very common method of moving files
between two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to
login to another Internet site for the purposes of
retrieving and/or sending files.
||A script on a web
page with a form which allows your website visitors to
sign in, and leave comments or questions.
||As used in
reference to the World Wide Web, `hit` means a single
request from a web browser for a single item from a web
server; thus in order for a web browser to display a
page that contains 3 graphics, 4 `hits` would occur at
the server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the
||The first web page
that is displayed after starting a web browser such as
Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. (2)
The intended beginning page of a website on the
Home Page (or Homepage)
Originally, the web page that your browser is set to use
when it starts up. The more common meaning refers to the
main web page for a business, organization, person or
simply the main page out of a collection of web pages.
||A computer on a
network which provides disk storage or services to other
computers on the network.
email, file, or online service is stored (called
`hosted`) on a computer (called a server) which is
connected to the Internet.
Language) -- The coding language used to create
Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web.
Transport Protocol) -- The protocol for moving hypertext
files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client
program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the
other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in
the World Wide Web (WWW).
indexes the contents and properties of documents on an
Internet or intranet Web site served by IIS 4.0. Index
Server enables Web clients with any browser to search a
Web site by filling in the fields of an HTML query form.
||InterNIC (now known
as Network Solutions) currently holds an exclusive
contract with the U.S. government to assign domain names
for .COM, .NET and .ORG. Network Solutions is the
company that runs the InterNIC registry.
||A private network
inside a company or organization that uses the same
kinds of software that you would find on the public
Internet, but that is only for internal use.
Number) -- Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique
number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots. Every
machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number -
if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not
really on the Internet.
IP Number (Internet Protocol Number)
||A unique number
consisting of 4 numbers (0-255) separated by periods
(e.g. 18.104.22.168). Every computer that is on the
Internet has a unique IP number. It is sometimes
referred to as a `dotted quad`.
Chat) -- Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility.
There are a number of major IRC servers around the world
which are linked to each other. Anyone can create a
channel and anything that anyone types in a given
channel is seen by all others in the channel. Private
channels can (and are) created for multi-person
Provider) -- An institution that provides access to the
||Java is a
network-oriented programming language invented by Sun
Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing
programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer
through the Internet and immediately run without fear of
viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using
small Java programs (called `Applets`), Web pages can
include functions such as animations, calculators, and
||A thousand bytes.
Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes.
Network) -- A computer network limited to the immediate
area, usually the same building or floor of a building.
||Refers to a phone
line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7
-days-a-week use from your location to another location.
The highest speed data connections require a leased
||Load balancing is
the act of distributing the load of a single web site or
other service to multiple physical servers. It can be
accomplished using a number of simple as well as more
complex methods, such as round robin, least users, least
traffic, or weights defined per server, among others. It
offers lower cost, higher performance and reliability
than having one large enterprise-scale server. A
load-balanced server set provides redundancy and
practically infinite scalability. If one server goes
down, there is no noticeable effect on end users and no
downtime; new servers can be added and servers taken
down for maintenance transparently to end users. A
load-balanced set can consist of as little as two
servers, or of thousands of servers. The term load
balancing refers to front end (i.e. incoming traffic)
distribution only; load balancing does not include
back-end functionality such as data replication or
mirroring; that further service is known as clustering.
||The account name
used to gain access to a computer system.
Millions of Bits Per Second, or Megabits Per Second. It
is a measure of bandwidth on a telecommunications
||A million bytes. A
||A script on a web
page(s) with a form which allows you to host discussions
on your web site. You can make these discussions
anything you want, or you can let your visitors choose
the topic. It is also called a web board or a forum.
||To mirror is to
maintain an exact copy of something. Probably the most
common use of the term on the Internet refers to `mirror
sites` which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain
exact copies of material originated at another location,
usually in order to provide more widespread access to
the resource. Another common use of the term `mirror`
refers to an arrangement where information is written to
more than one hard disk simultaneously, so that if one
disk fails, the computer keeps on working without losing
MP3 (Mpeg Layer 3)
compression standard, or file type, for encoding music.
MS Access Database
||Microsoft Access is
the best selling database in the world since it comes
bundled in Microsoft Office. Powerful and fully
compatible with ASP scripting.
MS Index Server
||A search engine
facility for NT based websites.
MS SQL Database
performance database application for NT servers, for
large and complicated back-end integration of database
MS Visual InterDev
||A tool commonly
used for database integration on NT servers.
||Widely regarded as
the best open-source UNIX based SQL database.
||A computer that
performs the mapping of easily remembered domain names
to IP addresses. Sometimes referred to as a host server.
||A WWW Browser and
the name of a company now owned by AOL. The Netscape(tm)
browser. Netscape has diminished in popularity and is
generally considered inferior to Microsoft Explorer
||Any time you
connect 2 or more computers together so that they can
share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2
or more networks together and you have an internet.
||The name for
discussion groups on USENET.
||Any single computer
connected to a network.
||Windows NT® is
Microsoft ® 32-bit operating system. Used by web hosting
companies in the network environment to offer customers
support for Microsoft base products such as MS Access®,
MS SQL® 7.0, and FrontPage® 2000.
||Refers to a circuit
that transmits 155,000,000 bits per second. This is the
size of the largest Internet backbone providers
levels - Used to specify the speed of fiber optic
networks. The base rate (OC-1) is 51.84 Mbps. OC-2 runs
at twice the base rate, OC-3 at three times the base
rate, etc. Planned rates include OC-1, OC-3 (155.52
Mbps), OC-12 (622.08 Mpbs), OC-24 (1.244 Gbps), and
OC-48 (2.488 Gbps).
||The method used to
move data around on the Internet. In packet switching,
all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into
chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from
and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from
many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines,
and be sorted and directed to different routes by
special machines along the way. This way many people can
use the same lines at the same time.
Parking (Domain Name)
||Parking is the
process by which someone selects a domain name, and
`parks` it by registering the domain name under a hosts
name servers. Parking can be done by anyone, to anyone
else who has active name servers. However, parking a
domain name alone will result in no service (hosting,
e-mail etc.) for that particular domain name
||A code used to gain
access to a locked system.
(programming) language which is commonly used to write
CGI programs to be run from a website. Perl programs are
text files that are parsed (run through and executed) by
a program called an `interpreter` on the server.
||- A scripting
language. The PHP scripts, or commands, which are
embedded in the web pages HTML, are executed on the web
server to generate dynamic HTML pages (e.g. search
results from a database). See php.net.
||3 meanings. First
and most generally, a place where information goes into
or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a
personal computer is where a modem would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is
part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after
the domain name. Every service on an Internet server
listens on a particular port number on that server. Most
services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers
normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on
non-standard ports, in which case the port number must
be specified in a URL when accessing the server.
||The process by the
name servers throughout the world have updated their
records for a specific domain. For example, if you move
your domain from one host to another, it will take
around 24-48 hours or so for the new address to
broadcast everywhere. During that period, the traffic is
decreasing at the old location and increasing at the new
Raw Log Files
analysis, you may download for compiling on your local
Real Audio / Real Video
Video enables users to send and receive audio, video and
other multimedia services using the Web.
Registrant (Domain Name)
responsible for assigning domain names for the TLD that
they manage. Furthermore, it is their responsibility to
update the global DNS tables that all nameservers use to
resolve domain names. For example, InterNIC is the
registry for .COM, .NET and .ORG domain names.
computer (or software package) that handles the
connection between 2 or more networks. Routers spend all
their time looking at the destination addresses of the
packets passing through them and deciding which route to
send them on.
||SSL protocol to
establish a secure connection. Security Certificates
contain information about who it belongs to, who it was
issued by, a unique serial number or other unique
identification, valid dates, and an encrypted
`fingerprint` that can be used to verify the contents of
the certificate. In order for an SSL connection to be
created both sides must have a valid Security
||A computer that
provides a specific kind of service to client software
running on other computers. The term can refer to a
particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or
to the machine on which the software is running. A
single server machine could have several different
server software packages running on it, thus providing
many different servers to clients on the network.
||A Cluster is a a
group of physical servers, which run front end web
server software and contain back end data base-type
facilities. A Cluster can be as simple as a two servers,
one front end and one back end, but normally a cluster
will have several servers. Clusters contain facilities
for services such as load balancing and data
replication. Clusters offer enhanced security,
redundancy and enhanced performance and are a natural
evolution to any successful complex web site or
Server Side Includes
||Add the convenience
and flexibility of embedding CGI capability into your
by Macromedia, allows you to view new forms of
entertainment on the Web, such as games, music, chat,
interactive product demos, and e-merchandising
||Allows you to sell
or purchase goods or services via your website.
Transport Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send
electronic mail on the Internet. SMTP consists of a set
of rules for how a program sending mail and a program
receiving mail should interact.
Spam (or Spamming)
attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other
networked communications facility as if it was a
broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same
message to a large number of people who did not ask for
Language) -- A specialized programming language for
sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength
and many smaller database applications can be addressed
using SQL. Each specific application will have its own
version of SQL implementing features unique to that
application, but all SQL-capable databases support a
common subset of SQL.
SSI (Server-Side Includes)
which can be embedded within a web page and parsed by
the web server. These are commonly used to include files
(such as a header or footer) that are used on multiple
pages; show date and time; provide a `back` link; or
execute CGI scripts such as counters and rotating
Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape Communications
to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across
the Internet. SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in
communications between web browsers and web servers.
URL`s that begin with `https` indicate that an SSL
connection will be used. SSL provides 3 important
things: Privacy, Authentication, and Message Integrity.
In an SSL connection each side of the connection must
have a Security Certificate, which each sides software
sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what it
sends using information from both its own and the other
sides Certificate, ensuring that only the intended
recipient can de-crypt it, and that the other side can
be sure the data came from the place it claims to have
come from, and that the message has not been tampered
Layers (SSL) allows you to encrypt credit card numbers
or other confidential documents so that it is impossible
to intercept during a transmission.
connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000
connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is the suite
of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally
designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software
is now available for every major kind of computer
operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your
computer must have TCP/IP software.
||The command and
program used to login from one Internet site to another.
The telnet command program gets you to the login: prompt
of another host.
Transfer (Domain Name)
domains are sold to another organization or sometimes
the name of a company might change. Most registries
require a letter of permission from the old owner to
hand over control to the new owner. The procedures for
Transfer of ownership will depend on the registry.
Locator) -- The standard way to give the address of any
resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide
Visual Basic® programming language, is a fast, portable,
lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web
browsers and other applications that use Microsoft®
ActiveX® Controls, Automation servers, and Java applets.
||(Wide Area Network)
-- Any internet or network that covers an area larger
than a single building or campus.
||WWW is the World
||An HTML document
with its own web address (URL). The first page you
usually request at a web site is called the `home page`.
With frames, multiple pages (HTML files) can be
downloaded to a browser and arranged on designated
sections of the display screen at the same time -- these
are also collectively termed a `web page`.
||A Web server is a
program that, using the client/server model and the
World Wide Webs Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP),
serves the files that form Web pages to Web users (whose
computers contain HTTP clients that forward their
requests). Every computer on the Internet that contains
a Web site must have a Web server program. Two leading
Web servers are Apache, the most widely-installed Web
server, and Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).
Other Web servers include Novell Web Server for users of
its NetWare operating system and IBM family of Lotus
Domino servers, primarily for IBM OS/390 and AS/400
||A collection of
interlinked web pages on a particular subject, usually
under a single Domain Name, which includes an intended
beginning file called a `home page`. From the home page,
you can get to all the other pages on the web site.
Webspace (or web space)
||Hard drive data
storage space accessed via the Internet - it may be used
to store data files or host websites, depending on the
maintain a database of domain names and their associated
contact information. Users can query these databases
through a program called Whois.
||Acronym for `What
You See Is What You Get`. A WYSIWYG editor or program is
one that allows you to create a web page, text, or
graphical user interface so that you can see what the
end result will look like while the document or
interface is being created. WYSIWYG web page editors,
such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe PageMill, conceal
the markup language (HTML) and allow you to think
entirely in terms of how the page should appear.
||The group of files
that reside on the domain host or name server. The zone
file designates a domain, its sub-domains and mail